The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople in 330 AD. Restored to senior emperor, he ruled until his death in February 1391. It was one of the last attempts by the increasingly impotent Roman Senate to influence the succession. My audiobook recommendation is How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius by Donald Robertson. Co-emperor since 821, he succeeded on his father's death. Born in 1006, he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch, Tacitus and Cassius Dio. Genealogy for Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias Alexander III Alexandrovich Romanov (Romanov Holstein-Gottorp) (1845 - 1894) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. History remembers Emperor Justinian for his reorganization of the government of the Roman Empire and his codification of the laws, the Codex Justinianus, in A.D. 534. People who know very little about the Roman Empire will tell you that Julius Caesar was a Roman emperor. The four members of the Imperial college (as historians call the arrangement) shared military and administrative challenges by each being assigned specific geographic areas of the empire. While these powers granted the emperor a great deal of personal pride and influence, they did not include legal authority. Princeps, because of its republican connotation, was most commonly used to refer to the emperor in Latin (although the emperor's actual constitutional position was essentially "pontifex maximus with tribunician power and imperium superseding all others") as it was in keeping with the façade of the restored Republic; the Greek word basileus ("king") was modified to be synonymous with emperor (and primarily came into favour after the reign of Heraclius) as the Greeks had no republican sensibility and openly viewed the emperor as a monarch. When emperor Theodosius I died, his sons Arcadius and Honorius, already proclaimed augusti, succeeded him. Baptized Heraclius, he reigned as Constantine. Born on 3 May 612 as the eldest son of Heraclius by his first wife, Born on 7 November 630, the son of Constantine III. The Emperor had precedence over all other sovereigns. After the fall of Constantinople, Thomas Palaiologos, brother of Constantine XI, was elected emperor and tried to organize the remaining forces. Constantine's own dynasty was also soon swallowed up in civil war and court intrigue until it was replaced, briefly, by Julian the Apostate's general Jovian and then, more permanently, by Valentinian I and the dynasty he founded in 364. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her. Son of Michael VIII, he was born on 25 March 1259. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor and pleaded his case to the Senate for inheritance on merit. Yet it was the second time that a man had achieved the purple while owing his advancement purely to his military career; both Vespasian and Septimius Severus had come from noble or middle-class families, while Thrax was born a commoner. Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, and by the papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797. Despite the existence of later potentates styling themselves "emperor", such as the Napoleons, the Habsburg Emperors of Austria, and the Hohenzollern heads of the German Reich, this marked the end of the Western Empire. Once in power, Tiberius took considerable pains to observe the forms and day-to-day substance of republican government. During the Late Republic, the most powerful had this right extended. Born on 25 January 750 as the eldest son of Constantine V. Co-emperor since 751, he succeeded upon his father's death. Caesar Augustus in Christ, John X Palaiologos, Born in the Purple, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans. When Augustus established the Princeps, he turned down supreme authority in exchange for a collection of various powers and offices, which in itself was a demonstration of his auctoritas ("authority"). People who know very little about the Roman Empire will tell you that Julius Caesar was a Roman emperor. Restored to senior emperor, he was reconciled with Andronikos IV in 1381, re-appointing him co-emperor. A member of the Palaiologos dynasty, he ruled the remnant of the Eastern Roman Empire from 1449 until his death in 1453 defending its capital Constantinople. But his tribuneship only granted him power within Rome itself. Born in 1010, he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor. Due to his minority, the regency was exercised at first by. The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora. Although these are the most common offices, titles, and positions, not all Roman emperors used them, nor were all of them used at the same time in history. From this innovation, often but not consistently repeated over the next 187 years, comes the notion of an east–west partition of the empire that became popular with historians long after the practice had stopped. Julius Caesar, and then Augustus after him, accumulated offices and titles of the highest importance in the Republic, making the power attached to those offices permanent, and preventing anyone with similar aspirations from accumulating or maintaining power for themselves. But outside of Rome, the emperor outranked the consuls and could veto them without the same effects on himself. In his early reign he was protected by his father-in-law Stilicho, a bold general who kept the barbarians threatening Rome at bay.  In Roman tradition, the first triumph was that of Romulus, but the first attested recipient of the title imperator in a triumphal context is Aemilius Paulus in 189 BC. The line of Roman emperors in the Eastern Roman Empire continued unbroken at Constantinople until the capture of Constantinople in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade. Nicholas I (1796-1855), emperor of Russia (1825-55), third son of Emperor Paul I (1754-1801), born in Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin). The Pope saw no advantage to be derived from working with the Byzantine Empire, but as George Ostrogorsky points out, "an alliance with the famous conqueror of the Lombards, on the other hand ... promised much". This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms also divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. With his death, Roman imperial succession came to an end, almost 1500 years after Augustus. These emperors eventually normalized the imperial dignity into the modern conception of an emperor, incorporated it into the constitutions of the state, and adopted the aforementioned title Basileus kai autokratōr Rhomaiōn ("Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans"). ), however, remained under actual imperial rule from Constantinople for centuries, with imperial control slipping or becoming nominal only as late as the 11th century. A successful general, he fell out with his uncle and led a conspiracy of disgruntled generals who murdered him. Captain of the guards under Julian, elected by the army upon Julian's death. " Meanwhile, Charlemagne's power steadily increased: he subdued Istria and several Dalmatian cities during the reign of Irene, and his son Pepin brought Venice under Western hegemony, despite a successful counter-attack by the Byzantine fleet. As a result, he formally outranked provincial governors and ordinary magistrates. Large parts of Italy (Sicily, the south part of the peninsula, Ravenna, Venice etc. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. Seeking aid against the resurgent Ottomans, he ratified the, The fourth son of Manuel II and Serbian princess, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 08:32. Table of Contents. Born c. 332. Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was the final famous Stoic philosopher of the ancient world. Prior to his ascension to the throne, the Roman Empire was going through the Crisis of the Third Century, a period during which the empire was in turmoil, and was on the brink of collapse. In the latter days of the east Roman (Byzantine) empire, apparently, the emperor was often styled, "[name] εν Χριστώ, Βασιλεύς και Αὐτοκράτωρ τῶν Ῥωμαίων", which I always see translated into English (perhaps, improperly) as "[name] in Christ, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." Named his sons. He usurped the throne from his grandfather John V for five months in 1390, but with Ottoman mediation he was reconciled with John V and his uncle, Manuel II. Nero was followed by a succession of usurpers throughout 69, commonly called the "Year of the Four Emperors". When the emperor’s tent was opened in the morning he was found dead inside, apparently struck by lightning. Favouring monks and intellectuals, he neglected the army, and his reign saw the collapse of the Byzantine position in Asia Minor. The last of the Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius, chose his natural son Commodus as his successor rather than adopting an heir. Pius Felix ("Pious and Blessed"): an honorific title, Princeps Iuventutis: ("Prince of Youth"), an honorific title awarded to a presumptive emperor-designate, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 17:01. When Trajan acceded to the purple he chose to follow his predecessor's example, adopting Hadrian as his own heir, and the practice then became the customary manner of imperial succession for the next century, producing the "Five Good Emperors" and the Empire's period of greatest stability. With Imperium Maius, the emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate. His brother, Born c. 1192, he became the son-in-law and successor of Theodore I in 1212. He never visited the city of Rome during his reign, which marks the beginning of a series of "barracks emperors" who came from the army. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir. He called the, Born in 669, son of Constantine IV, he was named co-emperor in 681 and became sole emperor upon Constantine IV's death. He kept the East for himself and founded his city of Constantinople as its new capital. 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