The key symptoms of dyslexia are problems with decoding or single word reading and/or poor reading fluency and poor spelling. the instruction ‘Come and have your lunch’ may be able to do so without understanding any verbal language, if they have seen the table being laid and their lunch dished up (Bradshaw 2001). NCDJ Recommendation: Refer to someone as having PTSD only if the information is relevant to the story and the person has been formally diagnosed by a medical professional. It should be noted that estimates of prevalence of challenging behaviors for individuals with developmental disabilities varies depending on the methodology used (e.g., variations in definitions, assessment measures) and population addressed (e.g., institutional, residential, nationalities). You communicate all day long. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment recommends using people-first language when referring to alcoholism, such as “someone with alcoholism” or “someone with an alcohol problem.”, NCDJ Recommendation: Refer to someone who harmfully uses alcohol as “someone with an alcohol problem” or “someone with alcoholism” rather than alcoholic because it identifies someone solely by their disease. Avoid using “psychotic” as an adjective to describe a person; instead refer to a person as “having a psychotic condition” or “experiencing a psychosis.” Avoid using the terms colloquially. Several U.S. disability groups have always used identity-first terms, specifically the culturally Deaf community and the autistic rights community. Develop instructional strategies and tactics for teaching the acquisition of new behaviors and skills to students with severe/profound disabilities (i.e. Whenever possible, specify the specific illness a person has rather than mental illness in general. A meta-analysis and review of sight word research and its implications for teaching functional reading to individuals with moderate and severe disabilities. Certain communities, such as the Muscular Dystrophy community and the Spinal Muscular Atrophy community have embraced the term, but others argue that interabled relationships are relationships just like any other and should not be marked as different. For example, if a student goal is to make requests, play a motivating game at free time in which the students must request a turn. People with psychosis are described as psychotic. The federal definition of a “service animal” applies to “any guide dog, signal dog or other animal trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability.” This may include animals that guide individuals with impaired vision, alert individuals with impaired hearing to intruders or sounds, provide minimal protection or rescue work, pull a wheelchair or fetch dropped items. Do not use “bipolar” as an adjective for something other than a medical condition when referring to something that rapidly or drastically changes. understanding of the characteristics and needs of individuals with severe disabilities. Background: Muscular dystrophy could refer to any of more than 30 genetic conditions characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles that control movement, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. They may prefer “non-disabled” or “enabled” as being more accurate. Use of the word “dwarf” is considered acceptable when referring to the genetic condition, but it is often considered offensive when used in a non-medical sense. All staff working with a student should be aware of that student's communication goals. Syracuse University’s Disability Cultural Center says, “The basic reason behind members of (some disability) groups’ dislike for the application of people-first language to themselves is that they consider their disabilities to be inseparable parts of who they are.” For example, they prefer to be referred to as “autistic,” “blind” or “disabled.”. 1412. There are a myriad of options for communication supports for non-verbal students. People with albinism also are sensitive to the effects of the sun and are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders consolidates all autism disorders under the larger autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. In general, the NCDJ recommends people-first language (the person has ADHD, lives with ADHD or has been diagnosed with ADHD) unless the person indicates he or he has a different preference. The term “flashback” may be used to denote reliving an event that triggered the PTSD. The average height of a dwarf is 4’0.”. The word dates back to Old English, where it was related to words that meant to creep or bend over. If a student is working on greetings, take a walk and greet whoever you meet. Community-based instruction can be an effective way to teach life skills to students with severe disabilities. Do not refer to an “unsuccessful suicide attempt.” Refer instead to an “attempted suicide.” “Medically assisted suicide” is permitted in some states and countries. The device does not fully restore hearing, but it gives a representation of sounds to help a person understand speech. Finally, it cautions against “using mental health terms to describe non-health issues. The foundation recommends that, unless the person refers to himself or herself as legally blind, the terms “low vision,” “limited vision” or “visually impaired” should be used. Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication. “Able-bodied” is an appropriate term to use in some cases, such as government reports on the proportion of able-bodied members in the work force. EDSE 547 2 TASH, AAMR) that have shaped our current ways of understanding, valuing and supporting people with severe disabilities, their families and their cultures. The terms “senility” and “senile” denote conditions brought on by aging and often are used incorrectly to denote dementia. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 339–351. Background: “High functioning” and “low-functioning” are terms used to describe ability levels for people with a variety of conditions including neurodiversity, intellectual disabilities and mental illness. Carr & Felce, 2008; Serna, Jeffery, & Stoddard, 1996; Serna, Stoddard, & McIlvane, 1992). NCDJ Recommendation: Avoid using “lame” or “lamebrain” to describe a person with a disability except in a quote. The appropriateness of the terms is disputed by those within and outside of the organization. Bipolar disorder often develops during late adolescence or early adulthood. And you communicate to learn - to ask and answer questions, process and clarify information, and demonstrate knowledge. NCDJ Recommendation: It is acceptable to describe a person as “someone who uses a wheelchair,” followed by an explanation of why the equipment is required. Coverage of a full range of curriculum and instruction topics addresses the needs of students with severe disabilities, intellectual disability, physical disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Bifida Association. This style guide, developed by the National Center on Disability and Journalism at Arizona State University, is intended to help. The following broad definitions are sourced from Psychology Today: NCDJ Recommendation: Ask the professional how he or she should be identified, based on his or her formal training. permanently and substantially confined to their immediate premises. Conforms to AP style: The stylebook cautions against describing an individual as mentally ill unless clearly pertinent to a story and the diagnosis is properly sourced. What Can You Do With a Master's in Secondary Education? Laws against suicide have been repealed in the United States and many other places. NCDJ Recommendation: “Treatment” is an acceptable term for medical interventions, and “treatment center” is acceptable for the establishment in which such practices take place. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. For others, “partial hearing loss” or “partially deaf “is preferred. Many students with severe disabilities will receive speech therapy, but speech therapy alone is not enough to effectively teach communication. Updated - Evidence-based practices and strategies are presented in clearly defined ways to ensure that teachers understand how to apply them in their own classrooms. While most resources for inclusive education focus on teaching students with mild to moderate disabilities, teachers of students with more severe disabilities need specific methods to provide the individualized and systematic instruction necessary to support students in inclusive environments. AP style: Avoid using “committed suicide” except in direct quotations from authorities. Some argue that the term “commit” implies that suicide is a criminal act, while others view the term “commit” is neutral. The terms “mental illness” and “mental disorder” are not interchangeable. Alternate phrases include “killed himself,” “took her own life” or “died by suicide.” The verb “commit” with “suicide” can imply a criminal act. NCDJ Recommendation: Refer to a person with albinism, rather than an albino. A person enrolled in a treatment center should be referred to as a patient. Always refer to someone with a mental illness as a person first. Use people-first language, stating that someone is “a person with Down syndrome,” “is living with Down syndrome” or “has Down syndrome.” Avoid using terms such as “suffers from” or “afflicted with” in association with the condition. (on BB site) Weiss, N. (2001). NCDJ Recommendation: “Someone with an amputation” or amputee are both generally considered acceptable. For example, “He found the election results depressing.”. People who use wheelchairs have widely different disabilities and varying abilities. Identify strategies for ensuring that the instruction provided is culturally relevant and builds upon the student’s prior knowledge. Opinions vary on how to refer to someone with autism. Avoid using “defect” or “defective” when describing a disability because they imply the person is somehow incomplete or sub-par. Background: These terms carry the assumption that a person with a disability is suffering or has a reduced quality of life. When that is not possible, use people-first language. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Refer to someone as “having Tourette syndrome” only if the information is relevant to the story and if the person has been formally diagnosed by a medical professional. It is best to ask the person which term he or she prefers. Many medical organizations do not use a hyphen when spelling “posttraumatic;” however The Associated Press still does. In general, there is no hyphen after inter, so interabled is the correct usage (not inter-abled). 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